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SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND SOURCE PROFI LING OF BETA-AGONISTS AND SULFONAMIDES IN LANGAT RIVER BASIN, MALAYSIA

Beta-agonists and sulfonamides are widely used for treating both humans and livestock for bronchial and cardiacproblems, infectious disease and even as growth promoters. There are concerns about their potential environmentalimpacts, such as producing drug resistance in bacteria. This study focused on their spatial distributionin surfacewater and the identification of pollution sources in the Langat River basin, which is one of the most urbanizedwatersheds in Malaysia. Fourteen beta-agonists and 12 sulfonamides were quantitatively analyzed byliquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). A geographic information system (GIS) wasused to visualize catchment areas of the sampling points, and source profiling was conducted to identify the pollutionsources based on a correlation between a daily pollutant load of the detected contaminant and an estimateddensity of human or livestock population in the catchment areas. As a result, 6 compounds (salbutamol,sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethoxazole) were widely detected inmid catchment areas towards estuary. The source profiling indicated that the pollution sources of salbutamoland sulfamethoxazole were from sewage, while sulfadiazine was from effluents of cattle, goat and sheepfarms. Thus, this combination method of quantitative and spatial analysis clarified the spatial distribution ofthese drugs and assisted for identifying the pollution sources.

Nobumitsu Sakai a,⁎, Roslan Mohd Yusof b, Marni Sapar b, Minoru Yoneda a, Mustafa Ali Mohdc

a Division of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 6158540, Japan

b Veterinary Public Health Laboratory, Jalan Nilai-Banting, Bandar Baru Salak Tinggi, Sepang, Selangor 43900, Malaysia

c Shimadzu-UMMC Centre of Xenobiotic Studies, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia

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Nobumitsu Sakai, Roslan Mohd Yusof, Marni Sapar, Minoru Yoneda and Mustafa Ali Mohd (2016). Spatial Analysis and Source Profi Ling of Beta-Agonists and Sulfonamides in Langat River Basin, Malaysia. Journal Science of the Total Environment, 548–549 Pp 43–50.


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