Quaza Nizamuddin Hassan Nizam, Salleh Sheikh Ibrahim, Ernie Muneerah Mohd. Adhan, Ramlan Mohamed;
The United Nation predicts that the global population will rise from 7.7 billion in 2019 to 9.7 billion in the year 2050. Notably, the increased trends differ by countries, with developing countries needing to consume more food. Given the role of livestock in food security, income sources, and sustainability of rural livelihoods, it is imperative that challenges associated with livestock production are addressed and mitigated. Among challenges identified are the scarcity of water and land for livestock production and agricultural cultivation for animal feed. Climate-change related factors also impact production, which are further exacerbated by the detrimental effects of greenhouse gasses emissions from the livestock to the environment. Livestock welfare practices throughout the farm supply chain is also of concern such as stocking density, proper feeding and nutrition, transport, holding area and slaughter. Occurrence of animal diseases, particularly zoonotic diseases with pandemic potential, drives productivity to be reduced. In addition, unnecessary use of antimicrobials and veterinary drug further lead to issues related to antimicrobial resistance of global nature. Noting these challenges, adopting more efficient and sustainable livestock production practices may assist in mitigating unfavorable effects. Specific livestock related food policies will necessitate specific demand for each country. Promoting sustainable diets will help to reduce food loss and waste reduction. Climate-smart practices and technologies such as close-house production system, zero-waste farming, effective microorganism technology, and biogas, among others, may alleviate effects of climate change. Government incentives can be offered to farmers employing green technology and sustainable farming practices. Approaches towards disease prevention, control, and elimination can be enhanced through surveillance and early warning systems, enhancing livestock vaccinations, and strengthening farm biosecurity. Alternatives to antibiotics such as feed enzymes, probiotics, and prebiotics can be promoted to mitigate the effects of antimicrobial resistance. Additionally, animal welfare practices throughout the farm supply chain such as regulation on humane slaughter, stocking density and transport should be incorporated.