H. Haryani1*, F. Norfadzrin1, A. Aswanimiyuni1, S. A. Syed Hussein2, M. A. Abu Hassan2, A. Azman1
Microorganisms are important attributes in agriculture to promote the circulation of plant nutrients and reduce the need for chemical fertilizers. Biofertilizers are organic products containing living cells of different types of microorganisms that have emerged as important component of the integrated nutrient supply system and hold a great promise to improve crop yields through environmentally better nutrient supplies. A lot of microorganisms, for example species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas have a direct effect on the plant growth (1). The concept of effective microorganism, (EM) was developed by Professor Teruo Higa University of the Ryukyu, Okinawa, Japan (2). Effective microorganisms (EM) consist of mixed cultures of beneficial and naturally occurring microorganisms that can be applied as inoculants to increase the microbial diversity of soil and plant. Research has shown that the inoculation of EM cultures to the soil plant ecosystem can improve soil quality, soil health and the growth, yield and quality of the crops (3).