PREVALENCE OF HELMINTHIASIS IN RELATION TO CLIMATE IN SMALL RUMINANTS IN PERAK IN 1998 AND 2008

NORAKMAR I., CHANDRAWATHANI P., NURULAINI R., ZAWIDA Z., PREMAALATHA B., IMELDA LYNN V., ADNAN M., JAMNAH O. AND ZAINI C.M.

NORAKMAR I., CHANDRAWATHANI P., NURULAINI R., ZAWIDA Z., PREMAALATHA B., IMELDA LYNN V., ADNAN M., JAMNAH O. AND ZAINI C.M.

This is a prevalence study of the correlation, pattern and comparison of helminthiasis cases in small ruminants in relation to the weather conditions in Perak in the year of 1998 and 2008. Helminthiasis is annually diagnosed at the Parasitology Unit of VRI. Due to the global warming and climate changes, there is a need to know the effects of weather, if any, on the increasing trend of helminthiasis cases diagnosed in the districts of Perak. The methods applied for the diagnosis of helminth in faecal samples from sheep and goats were McMaster, floatation and larvae culture methods. In this study, animals with faecal egg counts (FEC) of 500 e.p.g and above are considered as positive helminth cases. Rainfall data is correlated to the farm location in each district and further analysed according to parasitological status. Generally, humidity and rainfall are high throughout the year, however, further analysis of data does not show significant correlation between helminthiasis and rainfall in the state. High humidity conditions contribute to the survival of infective larval stage of helminths such as Haemonchus contortus and this may be the cause for high helminthiasis cases in some districts in Perak. Comparison between data in 1998 and 2008 showed higher number of helminthiasis in 2008, which may be due to higher population of small ruminants in that year. Therefore, further research should be conducted to investigate thoroughly the relationship and the effect of weather on helminthiasis. Anthelmintic resistance study is also conducted to help farmers reduce helminthiasis problems in the farms.